A sailboat is a boat which is propelled by the wind on its rig.
The Egyptians were the first builders of sailing ships five thousand years ago, they manufactured them to navigate the Nile and later the Mediterranean. These were the first means of transport for long distances of water.
Currently they have a recreational, sports or educational use. But, in some areas of the Indian Ocean they are still used to market. The sailboats had a military use until the 19th century when they began to be replaced by steam vessels. All sailboats have a hull protected by the keel, rigging, at least one mast to support the sails and a centerboard so as not to derive and compensate for the lateral force of the wind.
The sailboat began to be built in 1999 at the MAG shipyard in Fontenay-le-Comte 50 kilometers from La Rochelle. Its owner, Pascal Herold, wanted to make a sailboat in the style of the Open 60 that participated in the Vendée Globe but wanted it bigger to go faster. He built it in aluminum and named it “La Follie des Grinders”.
In 2004, the Russian adventurer Fedor Konyukhov presents the “Trading Network Alye Parusa” project with which to make long solo ocean voyages to break records certified by the World Sailing Speed Record Council.
- February 2004: Record La Gomera (Canary Islands) – Barbados. 14 days, 7 hours, 21 minutes and 58 seconds
- 2004 – 2005: Round the world solo from west to east on the route Falmouth (England) – Hobart (Tasmania) – Falmouth (England) via Cape Horn.
- 2005: It undergoes a series of reforms to lighten it. The steel rod rigging is replaced by the PBO textile rigging. A carbon stick is installed and the electronics and navigation systems are improved.
- 2006: England – Australia with crew.
- 2008: Return to Antarctica participating in the Antarctic Cup Racetrack with departure and arrival in the Australian city of Albany achieving the record of 102 days, 1 hour, 35 minutes and 50 seconds. Leaving on January 28, 2008 and arriving on May 7. The WSSRC recognized Fedor Konyukhov, skipper of the Trading Network Alye Parusa, holder of the speed record in the modality of solo navigation during the 16.356 miles of the route below the 45 degrees of South latitude.
- 2008-2009: Australia – Falmouth (England) with crew.
- 2013: In the middle, the sailboat changes hands and becomes the Sterna to give it a new life destined to make trips to the polar regions.
Modalities of navigation with respect to the wind:
- Navigate in tight: when the course of the boat is close to the direction of the wind, entering the wind through the bow.
- Navigate to a quartet: when a ship navigates between the close-hauled and the transverse course.
- Navigate through: when the ship receives the wind on one side (through) at an angle of about 90º.
- Navigate to a length: when it receives the wind by the fin.
- Sailing aft: when it receives the wind in the same direction as its course, entering the wind by its stern
- Sailing on the starboard tack: when the boat receives the wind on the starboard side.
- Sailing on port tack: when the wind is received by the port side.
Types of Sailboat:
- Hull type: monocoque (one hull), catamaran (two hull), trimaran (three hull)
- Type of submerged appendices:
- Keel run: Continuous from bow to stern, with a longer, shallower and wider shape. The rudder is attached to the end of the stern. They are often difficult to maneuver backwards and have a large turning radius.
- Fin keel: separated from the rudder and is usually deep and narrow but short in relation to the total length of the hull.
- Keel with wings or bulb: variation of the fin keel with the concentrated weight in a bulb or a pair of wings in the lower part of the leaf. It increases the stability of the boat since the weight is concentrated lower, or allows a reduced draft which is good for navigation in shallow waters. But the bulb or the fins increase the resistance.
- Keel balance: Two shallow keels to port and starboard of the center line of the hull. You can beach on a sandy beach or in the mud at low tide. They reduce the balance of the sailboat, acting as stabilization fins. They are usually mounted on small sailboats but are not as effective as conventional fins in reducing drift.
- Retractable and pivoting keel: same type of appendix as the saber and pivoting clubs, respectively, but with the addition of ballast to increase stability.
- Orzas: Movable appendices that resist the descent or drift but can be retracted in the hull to improve the speed in favor of the wind, reduce the draft in shallow waters, or to facilitate the transport of the boat in a trailer. They have no ballast especially in small racing sailboats and in many day cruises. The saber clubs can be fully lifted by sliding vertically through a slot in the helmet. The pivoting swivels pivot on a bolt that allows the lower part to rise or fall.
- Rig configuration:
- Sloop to top of stick: It has a stick and two sails: one greater and one of bow. Depending on the size and shape of the fore sail, it can be designated by jib, genoa or spinnaker. The bow is enverga in the forestay, a cable that connects the top of the pole to the bow of the boat.
- Fractional Sloop: Very similar to the top of a stick. The forestay does not reach the top of the pole. This type of rig offers more ease of trimming and maneuvering and was popular in the 60s and 70s and is back in vogue in high performance racing sailboats.
- Cutter: It has a single stick and a mainsail, but the stick is located more aft to leave space for two bow sails and two stays. The main stay spans the jib and the stay of the staysail folds the stay. It is usually the preferred type for cruising sailboats because of its variety of easy-to-use sail combinations for different wind conditions.
- Queche: It has two sticks, one more forward (main mast) and another smaller one aft (mizzen) behind the main mast, but in front of the rudder shaft.
- Yola: similar to a ketch and also has a shorter mizzen stick than the mainmast. But the mizzen of the yola is located outside the length of the flotation, so the mizzen sail is smaller.
- Schooner: the aft stick (greater or master) is longer than the bow stick (ratchet). They can have up to six or seven sticks, but most have two.
- Spain: Basic Sailing Pattern, Recreation Boat Pattern, Yacht Pattern, Yacht Captain.
- Argentina: Yacht Helmsman-Sailing-motor, Yacht Skipper, Yacht Pilot
- Venezuela: Yacht Captain, First Sporting Pattern, Second Sporting Pattern, Third Sporting Pattern